Darcy Ingram, “Wild Things: Taming Canada’s Animal Welfare Movement,” in Joanna Dean, Darcy Ingram, and Christabelle Sethna, eds, Animal Metropolis: Histories of Human-Animal Relations in Urban Canada. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2017: 87-113.

From the first page:

This chapter brings ecofeminist perspectives to bear on perceptions of gender, animals, and ethics in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing world of Victorian Canada. Its objective is to make sense of the absence of upper- and middle-class women in Canada from a movement that was in other parts of the world so thoroughly associated with them. Their absence, I argue, had little to do with a lack of interest on their part. Rather, it speaks to a process of marginalization that took shape in animal welfare organizations across the country.  The many reasons for their marginalization will be articulated below, but the overall rationale was fairly straightforward. In England, where the animal welfare movement developed during the early decades of nineteenth century, observers soon perceived a tendency toward more radical views on the part of the movement’s female participants.  The American experience quickly confirmed this tendency, so that when Canada’s animal welfare movement took shape, the link between women, animal welfare, and radicalism was well established.

This chapter can be accessed in full at: https://prism.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/handle/1880/51826/9781552388655_chapter03.pdf?sequence=6