Darcy Ingram, “National Aspirations and Governance Networks in Canada’s Animal Welfare Movement,” British Journal of Canadian Studies 30 1 (2017): 91-113.
This article discusses the establishment of governance networks related to animal welfare and rights. Situating the animal welfare movement relative to processes of nation-building in British North America and Canada during the nineteenth century, it shows how the movement’s proponents struggled and failed repeatedly to translate the considerable interest that was expressed locally in cities across that nation into a national institution that might better represent the movement at that level and on the international stage. Employing sources including state legislation, federal political debates, newspapers, and published and archival materials generated by a wide range of civil society institutions, it examines the multiple tensions that informed these efforts, and balances them against the considerable headway that the movement made in other contexts during the latter decades of the century. In doing so, the article complements well-developed discussions of state formation in Canada by underscoring the importance of civil society institutions to that process.