Darcy Ingram, “Horses, Hedges and Hegemony: Foxhunting in the Montreal Countryside,” in Stéphane Castonguay and Michèle Dagenais, eds, Metropolitan Natures: Urban Environmental Histories of Montreal (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011): 211-27.
From the first page:
In January 1897, the Quebec government passed legislation under the province’s fish and game laws making it illegal “to hunt, kill, or take” foxes between April 1 and November 1. At first, no one seemed to notice that this legislation might pose problems for the Montreal Hunt, Canada’s most prominent foxhunting club and a bastion of that city’s Anglo Protestant elite. Come September, club members set out on the first of their fall meets, as they had every fall for the past eight decades. Things changed, however, when rural French Canadian trappers Joseph Asselin and Frank Jacobi faced fines later that year of twenty-five dollars or three months in prison for taking foxes that October near Buckingham, west of Montreal. News of their conviction spread quickly, and it did not take long for Montreal’s La Presse newspaper to seize the opportunity to take a swipe at the club. In light of Asselin and Jacobi’s treatment, the newspaper looked to the ongoing activities of the Montreal Hunt, and, in a series of articles entitled “Deux Justices,” it asked an obvious question. Why, it demanded, are Montreal’s foxhunters above the law?