Kathleen Rodgers and Darcy Ingram, “Ideological Migration and War Resistance in British Columbia’s West Kootenays: An Analysis of Counterculture Politics and Community Networks among Doukhobor, Quaker, and American Migrants during the Vietnam War Era,” American Review of Canadian Studies 47 1 (2014): 96-117.


This paper addresses migration, war resistance, and counterculture activity in the West Kootenays region of British Columbia during the 1960s and 1970s. Through a combination of perspectives including S.N. Eisenstadt’s discussion of ‘multiple modernities,’ it reveals an ongoing pattern of alternative, values-based migration we refer to as ‘ideological migration.’ Most immediately associated with the influx of thousands of young Americans who came to the West Kootenays during the Vietnam War, this pattern in fact began much earlier, first with the arrival of the Doukhobors beginning in 1908, and subsequently in the 1950s with the development of a community of American Quakers at the north end of Kootenay Lake. From there, we show how common experiences of marginalization along with shared values of pacifism, war resistance, community-building, and self-sufficiency facilitated the arrival of this new group, and with them the entrenchment in the region of a vibrant counterculture identity.